V?it?s

JBO竞博:29.9.2018 YTM Kirsikka Selander (Humanistis-yhteiskuntatieteellinen tiedekunta, sosiologia)

Aika:

竟博 www.rnryc.com 29.9.2018 12:00 — 15:00


Sijainti: Seminaarinmaki , S212
Tiedote: 29.9.2018 Kolmannen sektorin palkansaajat kokevat ty?hyvinvointinsa puutteelliseksi (Selander)
YTM Kirsikka Selanderin sosiologian v?it?skirjan ”Ty?hyvinvoinnin paradoksit kolmannen sektorin palkkaty?ss?” tarkastustilaisuus.

Vastav?itt?j?n? professori Harri Melin (Tampereen yliopisto) ja kustoksena yliopistonlehtori Petri Ruuskanen (Jyv?skyl?n yliopisto). V?it?stilaisuus on suomenkielinen.

Kolmannen sektorin palkansaajat kokevat ty?n ja muun el?m?n yhteensovittamisen vaikeaksi muita palkansaajia useammin, paljastaa tuore v?it?stutkimus.

Kolmannella sektorilla teht?v? palkkaty? on Suomessa lis??ntynyt erityisesti 1990-luvun laman ja Euroopan Unioniin liittymisen j?lkeen. T?m? selvi?? Kirsikka Selanderin tutkimuksesta, jossa h?n selvitti kolmannen sektorin palkkaty?n m??r?n kehityst? ja vertasi kolmannen sektorin palkansaajien ty?hyvinvointia julkisella ja yksityisell? sektorilla ty?skenteleviin.

T?st? huolimatta palkkaty?t? leimaa vapaaehtoisty?n organisaatiokulttuuri, joka ei kaikilta osin tue palkatun henkil?st?n ty?hyvinvointia. Vaikka vapaaehtoistoimintaan pohjautuva organisaatiokulttuuri tarjoaa ty?ntekij?ille runsaasti autonomiaa ja ty?n imun kokemuksia, ty? on samanaikaisesti kiireist? ja ennakoimatonta.

– Paradoksaalista on, ett? korkeasta ty?n imusta huolimatta j?rjest?ty?ntekij?t raportoivat julkisella ja yksityisell? ty?skentelevi? useammin ty?n ja perheen yhteensovittamiseen liittyvist? ongelmista sek? aikeista vaihtaa ty?paikkaa, Selander sanoo.

Yhteiskunnallisessa keskustelussa kolmannen sektorin toivotaan usein osallistuvan hyvinvointipalveluiden tuotantoon, yll?pit?v?n demokraattista j?rjestelm?? sek? aktivoivan kulttuuri-, liikunta- ja harrastustoimintaa. Samalla tutkimuksissa on todettu, ett? vapaaehtoisten halukkuus sitoutua kolmannen sektorin toimintaan on heikentynyt.

– Kaikki t?m? korostaa palkkaty?n merkityst?, mutta julkisessa keskustelussa ei ole juuri pohdittu sit?, millaiset edellytykset vapaaehtoistoimintaan pohjautuvalla kolmannella sektorilla on palkkaty?n johtamiseen ja ty?n organisointiin, Selander sanoo.

Ep?selv?t vastuut vaikeuttavat ty?hyvinvoinnista huolehtimista

Selander esitt??, ett? ty?hyvinvointiin liittyvien puutteiden vuoksi kolmannella sektorilla tulisi kiinnitt?? enemm?n huomiota ty?n organisointiin ja johtamiseen. Nykyisin johtaminen ja ty?hyvinvoinnista huolehtiminen kuuluvat yhdistyslains??d?nn?n perusteella vapaaehtoisista koostuvalle yhdistyksen hallitukselle.

– Hallituksella ei kuitenkaan ole v?ltt?m?tt? johtamiseen liittyv?? osaamista eik? kosketuspintaa ty?yhteis?n k?yt?nn?n toimintaan, Selander huomauttaa.

Palkkaty?n johtaminen onkin yhdistyksiss? usein siirretty hallitukselta palkatulle johdolle, kuten toiminnanjohtajalle. H?nen toimintaansa taas hankaloittaa se, ettei h?nelle aina ole annettu riitt?vi? valtuuksia palkkaty?n johtamiseen. N?in voidaan p??ty? tilanteeseen, jossa kenell?k??n ei ole t?ytt? vastuuta palkkaty?n johtamisesta, mik? taas vaikeuttaa ty?hyvinvoinnista huolehtimista.

– Jatkossa olisi t?rke?? lis?t? yhdistysten hallitusten tietoisuutta ty?hyvinvointiin liittyvist? ongelmista ja pohtia, tulisiko hallituksen ja palkatun johdon v?lisi? vastuukysymyksi? m??ritell? tarkemmin palkkaty?t? k?ytt?vien yhdistysten johtos??nn?iss?, Selander toteaa.

Lis?tiedot:

Kirsikka Selander
kiira.k.selander@www.rnryc.com
040?419 0887

Tiedottaja Sari Laapotti
tiedotus@www.rnryc.com
040?805 3575

Kirsikka Selander kirjoitti ylioppilaaksi Kiuruveden lukiosta vuonna 2006 ja valmistui yhteiskuntataetieteiden maisteriksi Jyv?skyl?n yliopistosta vuonna 2010 p??aineenaan yhteiskuntapolitiikka. V?it?stutkimustaan Selander on tehnyt yhteiskuntatieteiden ja filosofian laitoksella Ty?suojelurahaston rahoittamassa ”Kolmannen sektorin palkkaty?” -projektissa, sek? my?hemmin apurahatutkijana Ty?suojelurahaston, Sosiaalitieteiden valtakunnallisen tutkijakoulun (SOVAKO) sek? Ty?n ja hyvinvoinnin tutkimuksen tutkijakoulun (LabourNet) my?nt?m?ll? rahoituksella. T?ll? hetkell? h?n ty?skentelee yhteiskuntatieteiden ja filosofian laitoksella Koneen S??ti?n rahoittamassa hankkeessa apurahatutkijana.

Julkaisutiedot:

V?it?skirja on julkaistu verkkojulkaisusarjassa JYU Dissertations numerona 13, Jyv?skyl? 2018, ISSN 2489-9003; 13, ISBN 978-951-39-7532-6 (PDF). Julkaisu on luettavissa JYX-julkaisuarkistossa osoitteessa http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-39-7532-6 (PDF).

Abstract:

The Well-being Paradox of Third Sector Paid Employment In recent years, the institutional environment of the third sector in Finland has experienced major change. Hence, paid work has become more important in organizing third sector activities. Nevertheless, empirical evidence regarding the growth in paid work and what this means for employee well-being is scarce. Thus, this dissertation provides a general understanding that demonstrates how much paid work has actually increased in the Finnish third sector and compares the well-being of third sector employees to that of public and private sector employees. Moreover, the dissertation analyzes the factors that create and reduce third sector employee well-being. The dissertation suggests that changes in welfare policy, the fragmentation of third sector funding and changes in participation in charitable and voluntary activities have acted as isomorphic pressure, forcing third sector organizations to adopt and adapt practices from the private sector in order to survive in this changing environment. This has meant, for example, an increase in the use of paid labour, which can be considered a sign of third sector hybridization. Based on Statistics Finland’s register data, the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) employees has increased 70 % in the third sector since the mid-1990s. At that time third sector organizations faced increasingly greater expectations regarding their provision of welfare services as well as job opportunities for those who would otherwise face difficulties in finding a job on the labour market. Further the employment of disadvantaged people was also supported economically in the form of pay subsidy. Together these changes have contributed to the increase of paid employment in third sector organizations. Although paid employment increased initially throughout the sector, since 2000 the development has begun to differ between the various types of third sector organizations. In the service providing organizations, such as education and social and health care organizations, the number of paid employees has begun to decrease slightly, while in the more traditional voluntary sectors, such as civic activities and advocacy as well as culture, sports and recreation, paid employment has continued to grow – a process that reflects the fact that they have been exposed to different kinds of isomorphic forces than service providing organizations. Service providing organizations have mainly been influenced by coercive pressures that are linked to welfare policies. In this century, welfare policy has been stricter and more conservative and funding has been restricted in Finland. Thus, third sector organizations have been increasingly forced to compete for funding in order to provide welfare services. Moreover, in the same time period, different kinds of tax advantages and grants for general purposes have been questioned and limited. Consequently, some service providing organizations have corporatized their activities and as a result some of the work, which was previously part of the third sector, is nowadays reported as belonging to the private sector. When combined with an increasingly tightened funding environment and the fact that conditions for receiving pay subsidies have also been restricted, reasons can be found for explaining why paid employment is declining in third sector service providing organizations. Traditional charitable and voluntary activities are less dependent on welfare policies, therefore growth in employment has continued in these industries in this century. This is most likely linked to changes in participation in voluntary and civic engagement activities. Nowadays members of third sector organizations are less interested in the broad ideological goals of the organization they belong to and instead they focus more on activities that satisfy their personal goals. They do not, however, want to commit themselves as volunteers that would produce such services on a long term basis. Hence, third sector organizations have been forced to change their working practices. Rather than relying on voluntary work, new activities are increasingly produced by paid employees. Hybridization in the form of employment growth, however, creates normative pressures – paid employees bring with them the operating methods and networks they have used in their previous employment. This creates conflicts in the third sector because the expectations and working practices of paid employees are significantly different to those methods that have been traditionally used in the third sector. Third sector organizational culture is still mainly based on the voluntary ethos and voluntary working practices, which does not fully support paid employees’ expectations. This raises the question of the well-being of paid employees. Third sector employee well-being, however, cannot be fully detected by those general well-being models that are used for labour market research. That is because they do not take into account the ideological orientation of third sector employees, which is commonly referred to in third sector literature as a reason for high job satisfaction and commitment. Therefore, labour market research is combined with third sector literature in this dissertation. Thus, it is assumed that third sector employee well-being results from the job quality as well as their ideological orientation towards work. Well-being is measured through work engagement, the balance between work and family and employee turnover intentions. By using two quantitative datasets – one collected in 2011 from third sector employees and the Finnish Working Condition Surveys (FWCS) from the years 2008 and 2013 – it was possible to show that the third sector working environment creates high work engagement (Article 2), but also problems regarding job quality (Article 1), which manifest as conflicts between work and family (Article 3) as well as high turnover intentions (Article 4). Thus, it seems that third sector organizations do not fulfill the expectations of employees in relation to paid work. In order to better meet these expectations, third sector organizations should improve management practices and the organization of work. In this manner they could decrease work intensity and insecurity and improve the functioning of the working community. The dissertation claims that the paradoxes in third sector employee well-being – high work engagement but inadequate job quality – mainly arise because of the third sector’s long tradition of organizing work on voluntary grounds. In essence, the ideological nature of the work provides employees with high work engagement but, at the same time, the third sector’s organizational culture is not designed to manage paid work. Instead it aims to organize voluntary activities. Such organizational culture allows employees increased opportunities to influence how and when their work is done, i.e. job autonomy, but it is not clearly structured, which is why it is intensive and unpredictable, creating conflicts between work and family life, while also creating high turnover intentions.

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Lis?tietoja

Kirsikka Selander

kiira.k.selander@www.rnryc.com

0404190887